Survey of cannabisdiol in the non-addictive component of cannabis
Cannabis Cannabis sativa L. It is an annual herb of mulberry family, also known as hemp, hemp, hemp, mountain silk seedling and jute. It has important agricultural and medicinal value and is widely cultivated all over the world. As an ancient cultivated plant, cannabis has long been associated with records. As early as 4,000 years ago, the description of cannabis was already in the Yellow Emperor’s Canon. In the 2nd century AD, China’s famous doctor Hua Tuo used marijuana as an anesthetic drug for clinical treatment; the “Compendium of Materia Medica” also recorded the cannabis medicine; its mature fruit Hema Ren is also included in the “Chinese Pharmacopoeia” 2005 edition. Because of its moisturizing, slippery, phlegm, and blood circulation, Chinese medicine treats intestinal dry constipation, diabetes, hot shower, wind phlegm, dysentery, irregular menstruation, hemorrhoids, convulsions and other diseases.
Cannabis is strictly forbidden to be planted and cultivated in China. However, due to its special economic value and easy cultivation, the area of cannabis cultivation has been increasing worldwide. The main active ingredient in cannabis is cannabinoids (cannabionids). Currently, 70 kinds of natural cannabinoids are known, which are mainly used in multiple sclerosis, motor neurosis, chronic intractable pain and certain neurological diseases. Drug-induced vomiting. In addition, it also has a role in glaucoma, asthma and cardiovascular disease. Tetrahydrocannabional (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the main chemical components contained in cannabis. Among them, THC is considered to be the most important active substance in cannabis, and it is neuroactive and can be used to treat cancer-induced vomiting. But THC has a hallucinogenic effect, which is the only reason why marijuana is banned in many countries. With the in-depth study of cannabis, it has been found that CBD can hinder the effects of THC on the human nervous system, and has pharmacological activities such as anti-caries, anti-rheumatic arthritis and anti-anxiety.
Currently, cannabidiol (CBD) has become a new hot spot marijuana research paper on China-Africa marijuana addictive ingredient CBD research status are reviewed.
Cannabidiol (CBD) chemical structure
CBD was first used by Adams and Todd were from Mexico and India in marijuana in 1940 while isolated, but due to the limitations of the experimental conditions at that time, there has been an error in the determination of the structure of the CBD. Until 1963, Mechoulam and Shvo determined its exact chemical structure, which is currently a common structure CBD. Thereafter, Santavy given a three-dimensional structure in 1964 and published its CBD data; Jones The crystal structure of CBD in 1977, it reported two separate three-dimensional structure of CBD (FIG. 1).
Biosynthesis and chemical synthesis of cannabidiol (CBD)
The biosynthetic pathway of cannabidiol: The synthesis of the C10 terpene moiety in the chemical structure of CBD is mainly through the deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway, and the phenol moiety is derived from the polyketide-type reaction sequence. Yeast diphosphate (GPP) and polyacetate olivetolic acid (OA) are special intermediates in the synthetic pathway of cannabis chemical constituents. The CBD synthase which synthesizes CBD from cannabinol (CBG) has been discovered. First, the reaction of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethyl propylene diphosphate (DM APP), the resulting GPP reacts with OA to form CBG, and CBG generates CBD, THC and its carboxylic acid compounds under the action of CBD synthase. .
The chemical synthesis pathway of cannabidiol: The chemical synthesis pathway of cannabidiol is reported in many literatures. The most classical synthesis method is shown in Figure 2 (Figure 2).
Ρ-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol reacted with olivet in the catalysis of BF3 to obtain three kinds of products, wherein the yield of (-)-CBD was 41%. Since the raw material is relatively easy to obtain and the reaction is simple, the yield of (-)-CBD is also high, so it has been used as a common method for synthesizing (-)-CBD for a long period of time.
Pharmacological study of cannabidiol (CBD)
In the early 1970s, there was no report of the biological activity of cannabinoids in CBD. However, in the following years, studies on the pharmacology of CBD, especially the anticonvulsant effect of CBD, have been reported. Since then, anti-emetic effects of CBD have been reported as well as anti-oxidant and anti-rheumatic arthritis drugs in biological systems. Related pharmacological studies have shown that CBD has a regulatory effect on THC levels in the brain; and CBD exerts analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects through dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, and is stronger than aspirin. Inhibition of lipoxygenase; CBD, like THC, stimulates the release of prostaglandins from synovial cells. In recent years, the structure of CBD has been modified to synthesize a series of CBD analogs, which also have different pharmacological activities.
It has been reported that CBD produces regulatory products of TNF through peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Due to the potential anti-inflammatory, low-toxicity and non-neurotoxicity of CBD, it has been used as a therapeutic agent for collagen arthritis and has a certain effect on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In vitro experiments have shown that CBD can significantly reduce TNF and NO produced by peritoneal macrophages. Fride et al. found that (+)-7-OH-cannabidiol-DMH is centrally active by (+)-CBD and its analogues in the central and peripheral anti-inflammatory and anti-peripheral pain in the intestine of mice, (+)- cannabidionl-DMH can inhibit peripheral pain in mice ears and inflammation symptoms induced by arachidonic acid. Other Pharmacological Effects: CBD also has antioxidant effects and is resistant to glutamate neurotoxin (stronger than ascorbate or vitamin E) and is a potential antioxidant. In addition, the CBD also has anti-static effects and anti-gram-positive bacteria; it is effective for controlling dystonia and motor disease. The CBD analog Δ6-CBD has THC-like activity.
Cannabis, as an important international economic crop, has been restricted to the extent of cannabis because it contains nerve-active THC as a drug in the leaves. In order to take advantage of the advantages and disadvantages, industrial cannabis has been cultivated through the improvement of varieties in the world, and the amount of tetrahydrocannabinol is reduced to less than 0.3% for medicinal use.
In many areas of China, especially in the traditional cannabis production areas of Shandong, Anhui, Gansu, Yunnan, etc., there are thousands of acres of industrial cannabis for fiber use. However, after extracting the hemp fiber, the remaining materials are often discarded. It not only pollutes the environment but also wastes resources. The research on the chemical components of cannabis, especially the research on CBD, has played a positive role in making more reasonable use of cannabis resources and turning waste into treasure in the future.
The non-addictive component CBD in cannabis shows a variety of pharmacological activities, but the mechanism of action of CBD is not yet clear, which requires further research. At present, the research on the stereospecificity of CBD, the research on antioxidants, and the study of CBD analogues are of great significance for better studying the structure-activity relationship of CBD analogues and elucidating their mechanism of action. At the same time, the study of CBD analogues has undoubtedly provided a broader prospect for the development of new anti-diarrhea, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs.