The past and present of cannabisdiol (CBD)
Chinese name: Cannabisdiol
English name: Cannabidiol (CBD)
Properties: light yellow resin or crystal
Cannabinol (CBD) is the main chemical component of medicinal plant cannabis. It is extracted from female cannabis plants and is a non-addictive component in cannabis. It has anti-tuberculosis, anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacological effects.
CBD can not only act on the treatment of many difficult diseases, but also effectively eliminate the hallucinogenic effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the human body. It is called “anti-marijuana compound”.
The introduction of CBD
In fact, as early as 1940, the CBD was simultaneously separated from Mexico and Indian cannabis by Adams and Todd, respectively, about 20 years before the discovery of THC.
Good things and more grinding, due to the limitations of experimental conditions at the time, there was an error in the determination of the CBD structure. It was not until 1963 that Mechoulam and Shvo determined their exact chemical structure, which is the current CBD structure.
Since then, Santavy gave the three-dimensional structure of the CBD in 1964 and published its relevant data. Jones determined the crystal structure of the CBD in 1977 and reported two independent stereostructures of the CBD. Since then, people’s understanding and research on the CBD has been on the right track.
Understanding the medical value of CBD
The application of CBD in the medical field is mainly based on its protection of the nervous system. It is genetically stable and has good pharmacokinetic properties. Scientists have synthesized a series of CBD analogues through continuous modification of the CBD structure. These analogues have different pharmacological activities and can act on different diseases.
CBD medical applications
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory: CBD exerts analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects through dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, and is more effective than aspirin, which is well known and widely used.
Anti-epilepsy: GABA neurotransmitters in the human brain have a sedative effect and inhibit the excitability of the brain center. CBD can help control the consumption of GABA neurotransmitters, inhibit brain excitability, reduce seizures, and help improve the efficacy of other antiepileptic drugs.
Anxiolytic: Endogenous cannabinoids are an important substance that helps depressed patients reduce anxiety and are present in the body. The CBD can help endogenous cannabinoids maintain a reasonable level, make the patient feel good and happy, and not addicted like THC.
CBD application in the medical field
One of the most famous stories about the medical applications of the CBD is in the United States. An American girl named Charlotte has frequent seizures due to congenital Dravet syndrome. At 3 years old, her seizures have been severe enough to be 300 times a week, which is equivalent to one episode every half hour.
No medical treatment, in 2011, Charlotte’s parents risked imprisonment for her to try the cannabis extract CBD and the effect is outstanding. A year later, the number of seizures in Charlotte has been controlled only four times a month, and she has basically lived a normal girl’s life.
According to incomplete statistics, in the United States, medicinal cannabis with high CBD content will benefit at least 10,000 families each year. With the deepening of scientific research, this number is still rising.
Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (NHIE)
In 2015, GW Pharmaceuticals Inc. of the United States developed an intravenous injection using the CBD, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the qualification of rare diseases (also known as Orphan Drug Designation). For the treatment of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (NHIE).
Note: A rare disease is a disease that only one in every 2,000 people will get and cannot be treated.
New York University’s epilepsy sample test
In 2015, 313 patients with severe epilepsy were treated by the use of CBD liquid preparations at the Center for Epilepsy at the Langone Medical Center at New York University.
Data after 12 weeks of treatment showed that 27% of patients had a 50% reduction in the number of cases and 9% had no seizures. At the same time, CBD is well tolerated, with only 4% of patients discontinuing due to side effects.
Note: Tolerance refers to an adaptive state and result of the body’s response to drugs.
Special Contribution Award for Cannabis
Cannabis, a plant with extremely high medicinal value, has long been difficult to be accepted by law and morality, mainly because it contains ingredients such as THC that have an addictive hallucinogenic effect.
In the early 1970s, it was found that CBD did not have the same biological activity as THC, but instead antagonized the neural activity of THC on the human body.
People began to face marijuana as the other side of the angel and strengthened its applied research in the medical field, which indirectly promoted the legalization of medicinal cannabis on a global scale.
From this point of view, the cannabis community should really issue a “Special Contribution Award” to the CBD.